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20世紀20~40年代,上海的外國資本和中國民族資本經營的工商業都有較大發展。這一時期,上海建筑設計機構不斷增加,外商開辦的有公和洋行、德和洋行、鄔達克洋行、哈沙德洋行等。隨后,一批受過西方建筑學教育的留學生回國,并陸續在上海開業,形成了一支可與當時在上海的外國建筑設計師相抗衡的設計隊伍。著名的有莊俊建筑師事務所、華蓋建筑師事務所、范文照建筑師事務所、董大酉建筑師事務所等。在此期間,上海建成了不少有代表性的建筑,如外灘的“萬國建筑博覽群”,徐匯、盧灣等地的各式花園住宅以及新式里弄等,建筑形式多樣,風格迥異。


(華東建筑設計研究院 漢口路151號)

(上海建筑設計研究院舊址 廣東路17號)

解放前夕,由于國民黨的腐敗和戰爭動亂,私營事務所逐步宣告停業,外商事務所也逐漸退出,建筑設計事務所的業務大多停頓。1949年上海解放后,市政工程開始統一由上海市人民政府工務局、公用局下屬的設計部門設計。1950年至1952年經濟恢復時期,國家提出“沒有強大的工業就沒有強大的國防”,確定以發展工業為主的方向,著手籌建一系列的工業項目。當時的上海市副市長潘漢年按陳云同志的指示,委派金甌卜等同志籌建國營的建筑設計單位。1952年,以上海市營造建筑工程公司設計組為基礎,組建了上海市建筑設計公司(籌);同年5月,又與華東工業部建筑工程公司設計組等部門合并,組成華東工業部建筑設計公司,1954年改為華東工業建筑設計院。隨后,第一個五年計劃(1953~1957年)期間,為適應國家重點建設工程的需要,中央及華東有關專業部門開始相繼在上海組建了一批專業勘察設計機構。1953年,一家國營的小型設計室在外灘漢密爾頓大廈成立——上海市建筑工程局生產技術處設計科,科長劉慧忠。這是建國后上海第一家市屬設計單位,也就是上海市民用建筑設計院的前身。設計科不久搬至外灘和平飯店南樓,后因公私合營員工大增,最終搬入外灘的廣東路17號(原外灘3號),并常駐于此。

1952年前后,“兩院”籌建時,均得到了政府的全力支持:1、調集當時大學土木建筑系畢業的地下黨員和大學、大專畢業的工程、建筑設計人員;2、撥給辦公大樓,以便設計公司擴大開展業務;3、在經費上給予一定的支持,設計人員的待遇從優。“兩院”當時在機構上設總圖、文教、居住、醫衛、工廠、土木、機電等設計室和土測隊(后改為勘測室)、計劃室、技術室及材料實驗所等部門;建立了責任制和技術審核程序,召集聯席會來推行平行作業;此外,還制定有統一設計標準、統一設計圖紙規格和統一評圖等設計手段。

在設計思想上,貫徹中央在1952年7月設計會議上提出的“適用、經濟、安全,并在國家經濟條件許可下照顧美觀”(后簡化為“適用、經濟、兼顧美觀”)的方針。我國現今各地都在擴城建房,地方之間相互抄襲模仿,開發商追求表面的洋式豪華,忽視功能,不為住戶使用著想,設計上“克隆”,缺乏個性創新等現象仍有存在。

——金甌卜·選自《金甌卜文集》




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